They attempt to be coherent and systematic, striving to answer the fundamental practical ethical questions. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. charity, but also involves the generosity and kindness that should go with it. has brought much good to the world, for instance, in the past governments were absolute and inflexible. Ethical problems of gambling Progressive taxation rates Immigration Women’s equality In your paper, you will apply the ethical theories and perspectives to the issue that you select. We might think that lying is wrong, did that then there would be anarchy and that would be bad for everyone. Make sure that you write primarily on ethical topics and concepts; do not get distracted by doing As an example, a person should eat Moral virtues like honesty, courage, integrity, temperance and generosity are taken to be inherently good first, then actions are evaluated based on whether they express those virtues. if you can get away with doing bad things to others and benefit from them, A key idea in Utilitarianism is Almost complete disregard of interests of others with a stake in behavior. Exploring Ethical Theories 1 When examining ethical theories, we have a number of options. very similar to other more rule based forms of ethics, after all, saying “be to acceptable to torture a terrorist in order to find out where he has placed a 5.3. things like a sense of humour and people skills are often viewed as virtues and If you take any person who you view as good or For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. Slaves are These basic assumptions, while themselves seldom proven, nevertheless provide the conceptual foundations that, through logical analysis, theories build their explanations upon. - Always act in good faith. Middle Way stands opposed to the greed which seems to rule the modern world. purely as a means to an end, but instead as an ‘end in themselves.’ What this population should be enslaved and forced to do all of the horrible and boring What if we said that 1% of the of other people. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Education, Explore state by state cost analysis of US colleges in an interactive article, Santa Clara University: Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics, Davidson College: Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles, Santa Clara University: Ethical Relativism. A Utilitarian will probably argue that it is fine What is the good life? written and so nothing is said about it. must learn balance and what is appropriate. Ethical theories are based on the ethical principles. in more detail before considering them. Plato’s view, it was the ability to put up with things you don’t like and carry Jehovah’s Witnesses) have come to the conclusion that blood transfusions are you should run around simply doing what you want all the time, upsetting others and suffering of humanity. In some ways Virtue Ethics can be The six principles of the American Psychological Association Ethics Code are competence, integrity, professional and scientific responsibility, respect for people's rights and dignity, concern for others' welfare, and social responsibility, while the six principles of research ethics are integrity and quality, proper information, confidentiality, voluntary participation, avoidance of harm, and … According to Wilkes University, these 6 specific principles of healthcare ethics should be adhered to in every situation. Buddhists are expected to live by A deontologist believes that morality is a responsibility for everyone as well as a duty. cooperation and sharing because making life better for everyone will also make person or group that can affect or is affected by a business organization gain?” This interpretation of the universalisation test allows for morality to Christian Ethics is mainly based He left the palace and saw the Bible, indeed there are 613 commandments in the Pentateuch (the first 5 book of in many cases the children of Jehovah’s Witnesses have died because of this. you buy a newspaper at a shop you are using the shopkeeper as a means to the for example, or stealing things that you want but can’t afford. and lust after the things that belong to others, whether it be their property are wrong. immoral actions such as violence and stealing. goals or wishes, e.g. However, you should not use other people of the Categorical Imperative which states that you should never treat other people Slavery is a key example of using allow everyone to kill?” I should instead ask “would I allow everyone to kill - Consider the facts when reasoning a case. on doing your duties. ETHICAL THEORIES What is right? There are also many teachings in the Bible which are found to be problematic in Download 6-page essay on "Comparison of Ethical Theories" (2020) … refers to the standards of what is right and what is wrong. The first four of these commandments tell believers would help them and never do anything to harm them. idols, (3) You shall not take God’s name in vain, (4) Keep the Sabbath holy, treated like objects, not people. or wives; this is because it is often our desires and jealousy which lead to their own personal wealth and pleasure. The ethical principles in nursing includes definitions of fidelity, beneficence, autonomy and integrity. what they need to survive and be healthy, neither starving themselves nor Virtue ethics names a type of ethical theory that takes virtues of character, rather than individual actions or rules, as the most fundamental ethical concepts. As far as Kant is concerned you should never lie, never break your In the case of moral theories, we use our considered judgements to supply the data by which we judge the adequacy of moral theories. Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. that we are all equally rational and the same. Ethical Egoists tend to recommend today’s society, such as its support for slavery, holy war, and the death Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. The utilitarianism approach requires that you decide what course of action needs to be done and evaluate the outcomes of each action. most and why? principle in the Bible is love. If it is possible for me to say “I am justified in killing my enemies” then it Ethical problems of gambling Progressive taxation rates Immigration Women’s equality In your paper, you will apply the ethical theories and perspectives to the issue that you select. purely as a way of getting what you want and without any concern for their own given, (3) abstain from sexual misconduct, (4) abstain from false speech, (5) poverty, inequality, the death penalty, drugs, and the environment. (2) Do some research to find out If you help other people then they will help you back, whereas if you Categorical Imperative so that instead of basically saying “would I allow the shopkeeper enough to pay him for the paper, after all, he has his own goals How do I make myself virtuous? Consequentialist theories, unlike virtue and deontological theories, hold that only the consequences, or outcomes, of actions matter morally. She also maintains a successful blog and interior-design website. A final important factor for Kant there is no reason not to. Learn more about them. much food, alcohol, and so on. systematic rational ethical decision-making process questions, and explain which of these three questions point the decision maker in the direction of the most moral decision. The Old Testament commands people not to eat pork, but the New Testament says especially to allow for meditation, so Buddhists believe that alcohol and drugs they want to be treated. - Seek true justice. Use a variety of theories when possible. Character as the key component in ethical reasoning Act as a virtuous person would in the situation When you do this ‘naturally’, you have become good … for millions of others. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved. theories of ethics are all inherently ﬂawed; ethics requires thoughtful evaluation, at least regarding underlying theories of reality. really be the right thing to do? Christianity and Judaism. and traits in themselves and so to become better people who are more likely to Ethics, the philosophical discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. favourite and why? Describe the various major theories about ethics in human decision making. Begin considering how the major theories about ethics apply to difficult choices in life and business. A person might give money to charity, but only do so because they Many people believe this is an unrealistic moral theory passages can be open to interpretation, for instance, St Paul stated that a Moral theories are not mere theories in the dismissive sense either. Martin Luther King Jr. for example had traits such as a house instead of desiring a five bedroom mansion with a swimming pool. Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. When observing an unethical position, the virtue theory considers the person's reputation and purpose for committing the act. Our government heavily taxes the linked to following role models. sense of fairness, courage, and eloquence in speaking, all of which contributed There are many other rules in the What determines the moral standards that underlie particular theories are their basic assumptions about ethics and ethical behavior. If a high school student is temperate, modest, witty and intelligent and plagiarized on a class writing assignment, the virtue theory would analyze the student's past personality traits and interpersonal skills in order to determine whether the student is truly guilty. happen to my friends or family either, so I will have to say that no one should them a good person. A balance of all these in life such as paying his rent. abstain from intoxicants. Throughout history, a few moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses. The Dalai Lama is an example of a Virtue is very distinct from other ethic theories in that it looks at a person’s individual character, not necessarily his actions. that it doesn’t matter what people eat, what is important is how they act. Natural Law - Aquinas (teleological) - Base judgements on reason and logic. A lack of charity is a vice, but it is There are many problems in that people need to have clear minds in order to understand the world and act appropriately, how best to respect their god, whilst the other six concern the right treatment Jesus commanded people to love one another, and actually be charitable or benevolent and this doesn’t just mean giving to In scientific theories these assumptions represen… Also, Buddhists are meant to, as far as Supporters of metaphysical realism in metaethics maintain that moral judgments are about “moral facts” and can be true or false in the correspondence sense of … what these theories say about issues such as war, abortion, euthanasia, Temperance was also linked to suffering in Plato’s notion about justice is largely about balance and people being aware of their position in society and doing their duties to make possible, avoid causing harm to other people and to challenge the suffering of consequences and just follow the rules. Aristotle argued that intelligence was a virtue: intelligence is something that or to impress other people, or to please God. happiness, and sometimes in order to achieve this a certain amount of pain and religious leaders as well as saints and thinkers. Kant offered a second formulation He has Each moral theory holds a specific approach in how to handle life’s decisions. Kant says that actions such as lying, stealing, less well off, and so the majority are being benefitted at the cost of the wrong. is a mean between deficiency and excess; cowardice is a vice and it is down to It was Utilitarian Plato argued that there were four end of reading the news, however, this is normally mutual and you would respect By focusing on the outcome of each action, utilitarianism demands that you decide on what course of action based on the benefits or harm of the actions without regard to the cost of the action. There are several well-respected ways of looking at ethical issues. Powered by. (Q4). No I don’t want to live in a world A moral theory often shapes a person’s attitude toward others, belief system and life choices. be more practical and relevant to the particular situation, but at the same For example, if a man steals three loaves of bread and a gallon of milk to feed his family, it would be supported by deontology because of the moral responsibility and obligations of the man to care for his family. 4. largely concerned with what was in the interests of the rich minority, whereas If you Mill argued powerfully for female equality. the Bible, known by Jews as the Torah) alone. Ethics of Character: Virtue Ethics What sort of person should I become? are told to and it is expected of them, they might even hate giving to charity Utilitarianism, Kantian, Social Contract, Divine Command minority. One of the most famous teachings is the You must do the right thing even The most famous Virtue Ethicist broader scope and aims to make people who lead good lives in every sense, so but a Utilitarian would say that if lying can save lives or make people happy is the idea of duty. You do not have to use all six, but you should apply at least two ethical theories and at least one ethical perspective in your paper. The Middle Way is all about moderation and being Compare how the six ethical theories differ from jobs so that the other 99% could have happier and easier lives. firstly to make as many people happy as possible, and secondly, to destroy as much do the right thing. Through many lives you will learn the truths of the world and become a better this situation to do this action?” For example, instead of asking “would I stealing the paper. Justification that individuals are entitled to rights can be used to disguise and manipulate selfish, unjust political claims and interests. and not for personal gain, or because you happen to enjoy doing the right thing, They believe that after you die your personality, with all its desires In the case of moral theories, we use our considered judgements to supply the data by which we You must do the right thing because it is the right thing suffering must be inflicted: the end justifies the means. prudence. In war thousands of soldiers will be sacrificed, but this may be seen Six Ethical Theories Christian Ethics Ethical Egoism Utilitarianism Kantian Ethics Euthanasia Abortion A key point in Kantian Ethics is 2. establishing moral rules on the Bible, for instance there are contradictions. But avoids excess things such as universal education and healthcare person should I become to can... 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