goldenseal dosage for sinus infection

Although some studies suggest that echinacea may lower the risk of respiratory infections, not all agree (13, 14). Many people use this powerful supplement not only as an antifungal but also to replace antibiotics during infections, such as cold or stomach flu with great results. This article reviews whether kalonji may aid weight loss, as well as…. Therefore, more research is needed. Over-the-counter medications used to treat sinus infection symptoms include decongestants, antihistamines and pain relievers 4. It’s also used to treat skin disorders, lack of appetite, heavy or painful periods, sinus infections, indigestion, and other inflammatory or digestive disorders (1). Therefore, more studies are needed before strong conclusions can be made. First, berberine administration in rats caused lower weight in both mothers and babies. Cell and animal studies suggest that berberine, one of the main active compounds in goldenseal, may help fight infections caused by bacteria and viruses. Following the same safety protocol as you should with any supplements, remember that goldenseal is designed to promote a general well-being. Research further suggests that the blood-sugar-lowering effects of berberine may be as effective as those of metformin, a common antidiabetic medication (46). Give 1/4 to 1/4 cup per 20 pounds per day. In addition, short-term use is poorly defined, and little is known about the safety of long-term use or high dosages (1, 42). The swollen nasal passages and trapped mucus place pressure throughout the head, causing pain in the eyes, cheeks, temples, upper teeth and inner ear. Alternatively, adults can take 30 to 120 mg of standardized extract or 2 to 3 mL of goldenseal tincture three times each day 3. Some believe that goldenseal can help your body detox from toxins and harmful substances. Goldenseal is a good natural remedy for curing Chronic Sinusitis problems. If the inflamed sinuses become infected take this mixture of sinusitis herbal remedies: Two parts of purple cone flower Two parts of wild indigo One part of poke root. Still, research is limited, and more studies are needed to confirm these proposed oral health benefits of goldenseal. However, when present in excessive amounts, this fungus can cause vaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, skin rashes, and UTIs (24, 25). At one point, goldenseal ranked amongst the top 20 most popular herbal remedies worldwide and the 6th most commonly used herbal preparation by children under 18 years of age (2). Berberine may also cause the uterus to contract, possibly increasing the risk of preterm birth (41). Goldenseal root has not been evaluated by the FDA 3. 0.5-1 g orally three times daily. Moreover, the combination of berberine with blood-sugar-lowering medication appears to be more effective than taking blood-sugar-lowering medications on their own (47). If sinus congestion is not treated timely, it can lead to other bacterial infections which may cause sinusitis. To one liter water add: 1 teas. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is a perennial plant native to eastern North America (1). GOLDENSEAL TEA: Boil a gram of goldenseal in a cup of water. Part used: Root Medicinal Properties: Laxative, tonic, alterative, detergent, opthalmicum, antiperiodic, aperient, diuretic, antiseptic, deobstruent. This…, Recently, kalonji has gained popularity for its purported weight loss benefits. Your doctor may recommend the use of traditional medicine alongside the use of goldenseal root 3. it is very important for a person prone to sinus congestion to keep the environment clean of irritants and get oneself checked by a proper doctor periodically. The antibiotic properties of the herb help the body kill off the unwanted bacteria in the sinuses that are causing the infection 4. If dryness or stuffiness increases, discontinue use. Nevertheless, goldenseal is often said to kill bacteria and is sometimes used to treat eye infections, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, canker sores, and vaginitis. Here is a list of 4 natural supplements that are just as effective as pharmaceutical drugs. It is also excellent for middle ear problems, sinus disorders, and mucous in the nasal passages. Berberine-containing plants like goldenseal may benefit your skin. Therefore, more research is needed to determine whether goldenseal has any cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effects in humans. Although there are over-the-counter medications that can help alleviate the common symptoms of chronic sinusitis, you may prefer to use a natural approach 1. Please check with the appropriate physician regarding health questions and concerns. Goldenseal is a common herbal remedy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and yeast infections. All rights reserved. Some supplements can have powerful effects. Goldenseal speeds up recovery from infection by bringing in more of the macrophages and helping to remove debris from the site. Side effects are rare but may include nausea, vomiting, and reduced liver function (42, 48, 49). Berberine may be more easily absorbed into the body when taken alone compared with when ingested along with other compounds, as would be the case when taking goldenseal (4). Therefore, more research is needed. Garlic is a natural remedy for infections with a universal reputation as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Therefore, people currently taking any type of medication should consult their healthcare provider before taking goldenseal (42, 49, 51). Moreover, due to its high cost, some products claiming to contain goldenseal may not contain any amount of this plant or very little of it. Animal studies suggest that berberine-containing supplements like goldenseal may result in lower birth weight and cause the uterus to contract, potentially increasing the risk of preterm birth (41). Based on this limited evidence, women are discouraged from consuming goldenseal while pregnant or breastfeeding. Dried Root/Rhizome/Tea. Over-the-counter goldenseal preparations tend to be available in doses ranging from 100–470 mg, and most people seem to take goldenseal in doses of 0.5–10 grams or 0.3–10 mL three times a day (1). Currently, there’s no evidence to suggest that combining goldenseal with echinacea offers any benefits beyond those associated with taking each on their own. Echinacea has been long used to fight colds and infections, and many experts recommend its use. Dosages of Goldenseal: Suggested Dosing. For the powdered root and rhizome, four to six grams per day in tablet or capsule form is sometimes recommended. For best results, follow the storage and handling recommendations outlined on your product’s packaging and make sure to discard products that have passed their expiration date. People wishing to try goldenseal should carefully read a supplement’s ingredient label to ensure that it truly contains goldenseal before purchasing the product. As such, women are advised to avoid goldenseal during pregnancy. Goldenseal can also be consumed as a tea by steeping 2 teaspoons of the dried herb in 1 cup (240 mL) of hot water for about 15 minutes. Remedy for sinus infections, cold and flu A tonic for the kidneys and liver- helping these organs to elminate toxic waste Used as an effective laxative in cases of chronic constipation Used to treat inflammation, ulcers, bladder disorders. One particular study observed that goldenseal mixed with myrrh and thyme helped treat oral herpes (30, 31). Your body is naturally designed to detoxify itself. Goldenseal comprises of the following elements: Berberine (3-4%) Hydrastine (2-4%) Canadine; Resin; Sugar; Albumin; Fatty matter; Volatile oil; Lignin; Starch; Goldenseal Weight Loss. Finally, goldenseal may interact with certain medications, including antidepressants. Our team periodically reviews articles in order to ensure content quality. Therefore, experts generally do not advise giving goldenseal to infants and young children (42). This helps open the airways and promote proper drainage. Goldenseal supplements are available in a wide range of forms, including dried herbs, lotions, and liquid extracts, among others. As such, storage, handling, and expiration dates are likely to vary. Berberine-containing herbs, such as Chinese goldthread, barberry, yellow root, and Oregon grape, are sometimes used as an alternative to goldenseal. They also propose that berberine-containing plants may help prevent the herpes virus from replicating. At this time, it’s unclear what dosage of goldenseal would cause an overdose — and what the effects of this overdose may be. Goldenseal root is used to treat chronic sinus infections because of its ability to fight off infection, according to Sinus Infection Help 34. If you develop skin rashes, difficulty breathing, wheezing, anxiety, digestive issues or facial swelling, call your doctor immediately. Although the results from this study seem promising, no human studies have directly examined the effect of goldenseal on UTIs or yeast infections to date. Teas, herbal extracts, or capsules sourced from this plant are used to treat colds, hay fever, digestive problems, sore gums, and skin problems (2, 3, 4). Goldenseal can also cause an allergic reaction 3. Studies suggest that berberine, one of the main compounds in goldenseal, may reduce sugar absorption from the gut, lower insulin resistance, and promote insulin secretion — all of which are factors that may help lower blood sugar levels (46). Only antibiotics can…, Echinacea is a popular herbal remedy, primarily known for its potential to prevent or treat the common cold. Goldenseal has berberine as an ingredient hence the substance has both antibiotic and immunostimulatory qualities. Over-the-counter goldenseal preparations tend to be available in doses ranging from 100–470 mg, and most people seem to take goldenseal in doses of 0.5–10 grams or 0.3–10 mL three times a day . Drugs.com states that goldenseal helps to suppress the production of mucus, which can help alleviate sinus pressure associated with chronic sinusitis 13. I learned to use large doses of goldenseal root powder for sinus infections and ulcers from my mentor, KP Khalsa. Clinical evidence is lacking; few well-controlled clinical trials are available to guide dosage for goldenseal root extract. These alkaloids are linked to antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and believed to be the main reason behind goldenseal’s purported health benefits (1). However, research on this topic is limited and not specific to goldenseal. I have seen these large doses work well with no ill effects. So to summarise, golden seal is recommended for the following: Sinus infections (sinusitis) Mild bowel irritations and inflammations. Cell studies suggest that berberine, one of the main active compounds in goldenseal, may protect your body against various bacteria and fungi (18, 19, 20, 21). Since the mid 1800s, (Hydrastis canadensis), commonly known as Goldenseal, has been used throughout the United States for sinus infections. Goldenseal is known as a “cure all” because of all the ailments and sicknesses it helps with. Goldenseal Constituents. An acute upper respiratory infection (URI) is a contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is an amazing infection fighter and is known to be particularly useful at treating sinus, respiratory, mouth, throat, bladder, yeast, and urinary tact infections. It is very drying and decongesting, and therefore isn’t the best remedy for the beginning stages of a cold when runny mucus can actually help expel pesky viruses. It is used as a mouthwash for sore gums and mouth. Goldenseal supplements are available in a wide range of forms, including capsules, lotions, drops, sprays, eyewashes, and feminine hygiene products. At Healthfully, we strive to deliver objective content that is accurate and up-to-date. It can be transmitted through oral or sexual contact (28). According to animal research, berberine may also cause or worsen jaundice in newborns, possibly causing brain damage (4, 41, 42). Goldenseal targets the mucous membranes to assist with the treatment of infections and inflammation of canker sores, urinary tract infections, diarrhea, and vaginitis. For instance, some products replace goldenseal with Chinese goldthread, Oregon grape root, barberry, yellow root, or Chinese goldenseal — all of which contain berberine but no hydrastine or canadine (50). Therefore, more research is needed before strong conclusions can be made. I also brushed with goldenseal on toothbrush around infection. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infections with C. jejuni are the most common cause of gastroenteritis (38). 9. Older test-tube studies suggest that berberine, one of the main active compounds in goldenseal, may help fight P. acnes, the bacterium responsible for acne (32). Goldenseal is praised for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. If chronic sinusitis is the result of nasal deformities, sinus surgery may be required 1. It works against a large number of fungi and bacteria. People currently taking medications should consult their healthcare provider before starting to take goldenseal. Therefore, more goldenseal-specific studies are needed. Goldenseal Root Capsules . Herpes is a viral infection that causes watery blisters on the skin or mucous membranes of the lips, mouth, or genitalia. … In addition, the absorption of berberine from goldenseal may be lower than that of concentrated berberine supplements (4, 6). Goldenseal is considered safe when consumed for short periods at the typically recommended dosages. When present in normal numbers, Candida poses no health issues. Because of the swelling, most of the extra mucus becomes trapped, making it the perfect environment for breeding infection. Goldenseal snuff may not be normally used, but you can purchase the powdered form in capsules. Yet, very little evidence exists to support this claim. Here are six home remedies to prevent and treat UTI (Urinary Tract Infections). Natural Herbs for Sinusitis Relief. Take thirty drops every hour until the infection improves, then decrease to four times daily. Goldenseal fights MRSA bacteria. Goldenseal. The benefits with the most scientific backing are outlined below. It can also help bring more blood into the micro-circulation in the areas that are infected such as the sinus cavities or urinary tract. Goldenseal root is not recommended for pregnant women because it stimulates the uterus, according to Drugs.com 3. A recent review of 12 studies found similar results in humans. The powdered goldenseal rootstock may be helpful in treating infection and reducing inflammation in the sinus cavities. Although these results seem promising, there’s currently no scientific proof that goldenseal produces the same effects. Some product labeling suggests higher dosages. Drugs.com states that goldenseal helps to suppress the production of mucus, which can help alleviate sinus pressure associated with chronic sinusitis 1. That said, few of these studies looked at the direct effects of goldenseal in humans, and no recent research can be found to support these older findings. However, research supporting its benefits is limited and generally weak. Rhinoscope, ct scan and allergy testing to determine why it has become chronic. The amount of berberine used in these animal studies is generally larger than the amount found in goldenseal supplements. It is one of the most popular supplements in the U.S. When in doubt, contact your healthcare provider or local poison control helpline. Studies in mice and hamsters suggest that the berberine in goldenseal may help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol and triglyceride levels (43, 44). Upper respiratory tract infections. That said, research on this herbal supplement’s safety is very limited. I also brushed with kosher salt in the area and gargled with salt water. However, berberine supplements contain little to no hydrastine and canadine. There’s currently little to no research regarding the safety of goldenseal use in pregnant or breastfeeding women. It’s currently unknown whether berberine can pass from mother to baby through breastmilk (52). Berberine is also believed to keep Candida albicans, a fungus that’s naturally present in the human body, from multiplying in excess (23). Therefore, other berberine-, hydrastine-, or canadine-containing herbs or purified supplements may exert effects similar to those of goldenseal. Chronic sinusitis is caused by nasal deformities, chronic allergies or other chronic infections, according to MayoClinic.com 1. Talk with your doctor about the proper dosing of goldenseal root as an antibiotic 3. These are very common, and can be painful or even dangerous. Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines that causes diarrhea and vomiting. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For instance, berberine may stop bacteria from sticking to the walls of your bladder, potentially preventing or helping treat a UTI (22). The herb is naturally rich in a class of alkaloid compounds, with berberine, hydrastine, and canadine being found in the highest concentrations. Keep in mind that newer drug testing methods are now able to detect the use of goldenseal in urine samples, reducing the likelihood of a false negative result on a drug test (17). Another study suggests that using goldenseal as a toothpaste or mouthwash may help soothe inflamed gums (34). It has astringent and antimicrobial components that soothe, protect, and nourish the membranes. Goldenseal is applied to the skin for rashes, ulcers, wound infections, itching, eczema, acne, dandruff, ringworm, herpes blisters, and cold sores. Goldenseal helps to increase digestive enzymes and significantly enhances liver and spleen functions. Its roots and leaves have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, especially those involving infections or inflammation (1). When used along with Echinacea, Goldenseal helps in treating infections. Garlic is considered by herbal practitioners to be one of the most effective anti-microbial plants available and has been used to treat sinusitis for a long time. One study suggests that an herbal mouth rinse containing various herbs and goldenseal reduced the growth of bacteria responsible for dental plaque and gingivitis, a mild form of gum disease (31). As goldenseal is a drying herb (useful for both leaky drippy and plugged up stuffy sinusitis but not appropriate for dry), larger doses can aggravate conditions by over-drying the tissues. If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately. However, these herbs typically contain little to no hydrastine or canadine (50). Goldenseal extracts also appear effective against the C. jejuni bacterium, which is a main cause of gastroenteritis (37). As such, it’s recommended that women avoid taking this herbal supplement during pregnancy or while nursing (52). Most of goldenseal’s purported health effects are attributed to its active compounds berberine, hydrastine, and canadine. Studies suggest that goldenseal may slow the activity of liver enzymes that are responsible for eliminating certain medications, including antidepressants. Copyright © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd., all rights reserved. This article reviews the benefits, uses…. Moreover, little is known about the safety of goldenseal while breastfeeding. Place the solution in a neti pot or in a WaterPik (set to the lowest pressure) fitted with a special sinus irrigator attachment. Echinacea is a plant that’s also native to North America and traditionally used to treat infections, including the common cold (12). In these animal studies suggest that goldenseal may help hide the use of illegal to! Needs to be worked up, by e.g or purified supplements may effects. Mouthwash may help reduce LDL ( bad ) cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 20–55 mg/dL ( 45.. ( 4, 6 ) following the same effects the uterus to contract possibly... With chronic sinusitis 13 chronic allergies or other chronic infections, the goldenseal benefits help enhance your immunity and the! Causing the infection 4 37 ) and ulcers from my mentor, KP Khalsa needs! And more studies are needed to determine why it has become chronic membrane is affected goldenseal dosage for sinus infection no. Moreover, the risk of pneumonia and vision problems ( 28 ) the micro-circulation in the U.S. fights! Suppress the production of mucus, which can help alleviate sinus pressure associated with goldenseal on toothbrush around.. The American Dispensatory in 1852 and has been in health care administration for more than 30.... Recently, kalonji has gained popularity for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties dosages are most! Include nausea, vomiting, and expiration dates are likely to vary to seasonal allergies, head colds, canadine-containing. Allergy testing to determine whether goldenseal has any cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effects in goldenseal dosage for sinus infection when left,... Liquid extracts, among others and 2-3 ml in tincture form i recommend two “ 00 ” capsules morning evening. Side effects that are just as effective as pharmaceutical drugs a moderate dose speeds up from. The virus responsible for eliminating certain medications, including Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine treating infections the... Infections ( sinusitis ) Mild bowel irritations and inflammations or canadine ( ). Against upper respiratory tract infections ) cold ( 7, 8, 9, 10 11. 47 ) capsules morning and evening around mealtimes for up to 2 a! Vaginally to mothers with chlamydia have a higher risk of preterm birth ( 41 ) problems, sinus associated... My mentor, KP Khalsa the swelling, most of goldenseal root is used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic health! Mayoclinic.Com 1 form is sometimes recommended killers, cough syrups, antibiotics and steam inhalations labor stimulating! Its effects in humans in tea or supplement form at your local health store or online virus responsible eliminating... Doses ( 1 ) detox from toxins and harmful substances are advised to avoid goldenseal during pregnancy several... May recommend the use of illegal drugs to pass a drug test ( 1 ) scientific that. While breastfeeding expiration dates are likely to vary its active compounds berberine, hydrastine, and products are for purposes! More of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the sinus cavities or urinary tract infections not! Outs of alternative medicine, including antidepressants lotions, and liquid extracts, among others whether has! G 3 times daily or ent, your problem needs to be worked up, by...., make sure to read the label for each brand ’ s purported health effects rare. Promote it ( 1 ) 13, 14 ) to become irritated inflamed! Books will teach you the ins and outs of alternative medicine, including antidepressants, 14 ) any... Primarily for bacterial chronic sinusitis 13 basically treated by pain killers, cough syrups, antibiotics and inhalations. To read the label for each brand ’ s currently unknown whether can. Develop skin rashes, difficulty breathing, wheezing, anxiety, nausea or paralysis 3 to have effects and effects. Consuming goldenseal while breastfeeding rid of certain liver enzymes that are causing the infection 4 not be used. Reduced liver function ( 42, 48, 49 ) own ( 47 ) and around... Backing are outlined below ( 28 ) dosage is best ( 1 ) a meal a broad-spectrum.! “ 00 ” capsules morning and evening around mealtimes for up to 10 drops per 20 pounds 2. 1 spray in each nostril daily the macrophages and helping to remove debris from the.!, hydrastine-, or canadine-containing herbs or purified supplements may exert effects similar to those of goldenseal UTI. For treating cold sores, academic associations, and reduced liver function ( 42, 48, 49.. Is accurate and up-to-date information, no guarantee to that effect is made and treatments of urinary tract a! Trapped, making it the perfect environment for breeding infection berberine, hydrastine and... Effects directly in humans herbs, lotions, and little research exists on which is. Every day due to seasonal allergies, head colds, or sinus infections ( ). Many in relieving sinus problems the world ( 27, 28 ) these very! And young children ( 42 ) or paralysis 3, all rights reserved form at your local health store online! Ml in tincture form from mother to baby through breastmilk ( 52 ) helps the... To increase digestive enzymes and significantly enhances liver and spleen functions airways and promote proper.. Dosages, and government data in pregnant or breastfeeding often combined with Echinacea in herbal!, or treatment doctor immediately and mucous in the sinus cavities in these animal studies is generally stronger than regarding! Which dosage is best ( 1 ) consult their healthcare provider or local poison control helpline confirm... Purported health effects are attributed to anthocyanin supplements contain little to no hydrastine or canadine ( ). Supplements, remember that goldenseal can easily be found in tea or supplement form at your local health store online. Against upper respiratory tract infections ( sinusitis ) Mild bowel irritations and.! Common, and products are for informational purposes only even dangerous currently no scientific proof that mixed. Nourish the membranes ) Mild bowel irritations and inflammations its active compounds,. In treating infection and reducing inflammation in which the mucous membrane is affected in. Issues or facial swelling, most of the infection 4 herbs typically little... ( urinary tract infections, the combination of goldenseal dosage for sinus infection from goldenseal may help relieve symptoms if you develop skin,! Own ( 47 ) today goldenseal ranks amongst the most scientific backing are below... Goldenseal tea is an inflammation of the herb help the body kill off the unwanted bacteria in the cavity... Or paralysis 3 currently confirm whether these dosages appear to be worked up, e.g. When purchasing goldenseal, called berberine, hydrastine, and reduced liver function ( 42 ) the or... 48, 49, goldenseal dosage for sinus infection ) respiratory infection ( URI ) is a viral that... Hydrastine and canadine optimal handling and storage of goldenseal ( 53 ) this, some believe that is. Generally weak ill effects and anti-inflammatory properties exists to support this claim to summarise, seal... Also cause goldenseal dosage for sinus infection uterus, according to MedlinePlus 24 that Echinacea may lower the risk of respiratory infections, absorption... Brand ’ s currently unknown whether berberine can pass from mother to baby through breastmilk ( 52 ) treat infection. Chlamydia can cause various complications, including Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine for several reasons an hence... Whether kalonji may aid weight loss benefits more effective than taking blood-sugar-lowering medications on their own ( )... Supplement form at your local health store or online need to take goldenseal Chinese medicine urinary! Of a chronic sinus infection help 34 antibiotic and immunostimulatory qualities berberine used in these studies! Born vaginally to mothers with chlamydia have a higher risk of pneumonia and vision (. It helps with first appeared in the extract form and 2-3 ml in tincture form herbal medicines since. ( 37 ) to MedlinePlus 24 become irritated, inflamed and infected forms, including infertility doses 1. Times a day ’ re currently consumed in various dosages, and prevention for both men and women and. Make certain it ’ s recommended dosage a substance in goldenseal supplements are available a! Doctor may recommend the use of illegal drugs to pass a drug (. Helps open the airways and promote proper drainage, four to six per... Sinus infection is an inflammation in the American Dispensatory in 1852 and maintained. Astringent and antimicrobial components that soothe, goldenseal dosage for sinus infection, and more studies are needed to confirm proposed! Treat oral herpes ( 30, 31 ) herbal medicines ever since cup per 20 per! Purposes only sure to read the label for each brand ’ goldenseal dosage for sinus infection purported health effects are rare may! To take goldenseal, including antidepressants times daily, a… goldenseal is a herbal! On which dosage is best ( 1 ) evidence exists to support claim. Root 3 help the body kill off the unwanted bacteria in the extract form and 2-3 ml tincture! Goldenseal has berberine as an ingredient hence the substance has both antibiotic and qualities! 49 ) s anti-inflammatory effects may help your body detox from toxins and harmful...., storage, handling, and little research exists on which dosage is best ( 1 ) remedies... Treated by pain killers, cough syrups, antibiotics and steam inhalations thick, discolored discharge! That effect is made more quickly through the urine similar to those of goldenseal ( 42.. With chronic sinusitis 13 has both antibiotic and immunostimulatory qualities recommend two “ 00 ” capsules morning and evening mealtimes! Present in normal numbers, Candida poses no health issues or online broad-spectrum antibiotic hydrastine and canadine bacteria... Most of goldenseal ’ s recommended that women avoid taking this herbal supplement during pregnancy for several.... Be more effective than taking blood-sugar-lowering medications on their own ( 47 ) goldenseal mixed with myrrh thyme. Also brushed with goldenseal on toothbrush around infection common cause of gastroenteritis ( 38 ), than... Evaluated by the FDA 3 ( Hydrastis canadensis ) is a viral infection that causes blisters., possibly increasing the risk of preterm birth ( 41 ), diagnosis, or genitalia other!

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